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  • 当前位置:首页 » ACCA/CAT » 备考辅导 » 正文

    ACCA《F4公司法与商法》精选讲义第一章(3)


    时间:2015-10-29 来源:ACCA/CAT 浏览次数:259  【华夏培训网:中国教育培训第一门户

      Session 3 Types of cost and cost behavior  Main contents:  1. Classifying costs  2. Cost objects, cost and co

      Session 3 Types of cost and cost behavior

      Main contents:

      1. Classifying costs

      2. Cost objects, cost and cost centers

      3. Analysis of costs into fixed and variable elements

      3.1 Classifying costs

      Costs can be classified in a number of different ways:

      · Element – costs are classified as materials, labor or expenses (overheads)

      · Nature – costs are classified as being direct or indirect.

      a. Direct cost is expenditure that can be directly identified with a specific cost unit or cost center.

      (1). Direct material is all material becoming part of the product unless used in negligible amount and/or having negligible cost. (component parts, part finished work and primary packing material)

      (2). Direct wages – are wages paid for labor either as basic hours or as overtime expensed on the product line.

      (3). Direct expense are any expense which are incurred on a specified product other than direct material and direct labor.

      b. Indirect costs/ overheads; are expenditure that can not be directly identified with a specific unit or cost center and must be ‘shared out’ on an equitable basis.

      · Behavior –costs are classified as being fixed, variable, semi-variable or stepped fixed.

      a. Fixed costs: are costs that are not affected in total by the level of activity, but remain the same.

      b. Variable costs: are the costs that change in total in direct proportion to the level of activity.

      c. Semi-variable/semi-fixed/mixed costs: are costs which contain both fixed and variable components and so it partly affected by changes in the level of activity.

      d. Step costs: are fixed in nature but only within certain level of activity.

      · Function: costs are classified as being production or non-production costs.

      e. Production costs: are costs included in a stock valuation. The product cost is the cost of making or buying.

      f. Period costs (general cost): are costs that are not attributed to product costs, but instead are treated as a cost of the time period when they arise.

      · Other cost classification:

      Avoidable cost: cost which can be eliminated by changing operations

      Unavoidable cost: cost which will not be changed by decision making.

      Controllable cost: those cost controllable by a particular manager in a given period.

      Uncontrollable cost: any cost that can not be affected by management within a given period.

      COST MODEL: $

      Direct material: 2

      Direct labor 3

      Direct expense 1

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